All Blog Posts (704)

Education Strategies for Visual-Spatial Learners

The visual-spatial thinking and learning style is very powerful. Visual-spatial learners are excellent visualisers and must visualise in order to learn. Visual-spatial learners think primarily in pictures not words - either “still” like photographs or “moving” like videos. They need time to translate their pictures into words and should not be hurried to provide answers to questions.

Their thought process is random abstract pattern recognition rather than sequential and they have… Continue

Added by Timothy Gangwer on May 22, 2009 at 9:58am — No Comments

Imagining Pedagogy: Infusing Visual Literacy in Schools


The world is changing. If education was to be a preparation for life, it has to transform in tandem, (and if possible, anticipate) the changes in the world. One of the key changes in the world today is the advent of the information revolution. In the 21st century, with the invention of the computer chip, the ways in which knowledge is constructed and retrieved have changed markedly. Factors responsible for such changes include the emergence of the Interactive… Continue

Added by Timothy Gangwer on May 18, 2009 at 11:23am — No Comments

Visual news and information

I am posting on the presentation of visual information at

Much of my focus on this blog is on the New York Times and politics. I invite you all to check is out

Project work on digital history from my students at NC State can be found at

Added by John Lee on May 17, 2009 at 6:26pm — No Comments

Children Live in a Visual World

Children live in a visual world and the ability to read visual images is becoming a vital skill. Rebecca Jenkin offers guidance on how to help key stage 2 students think critically about visual data.

Visual images are fast becoming the most predominant form of communication. Children are surrounded by all sorts of visual media now and according to Mary Alice White, researcher at Columbia Teachers’ College:

‘Young people learn more than half of what they know from… Continue

Added by Timothy Gangwer on May 16, 2009 at 6:11pm — No Comments

Better Learning and Expressing of Learning through Visual Literacy

Our cave ancestors were visually literate; their lives depended on how well they could visually read the world around them. Today our students are visually literate within their world of “electronic images” such as TV, video games, and the Web; they want to be visually literate in their school which is often devoid of visuals.

One major component of 21st century skills is Digital-Age Literacy. This literacy consists of scientific/technological literacy; visual literacy; and cultural… Continue

Added by Timothy Gangwer on May 13, 2009 at 11:13am — No Comments

A Visual Learner Learns Best By:

A Visual Learner

Learns Best By:

- Taking notes and making lists to read later

- Reading information to be learned

- Learning from books, videotapes, filmstrips and printouts

- Seeing a demonstration


- Practice visualizing (mental imagery) or picturing spelling words.

- Write out everything for frequent and quick visual… Continue

Added by Timothy Gangwer on May 11, 2009 at 10:03am — No Comments

Through a Class Darkly: Visual Literacy

“Viewing and Representing in the Middle Years” was a two-year project to investigate visual literacy in the English language arts classrooms of three teachers. These teachers tried a variety of approaches and were generally optimistic about the benefits of the increased inclusion of visual materials. They did, however, report a number of challenges in using viewing and representing approaches as part of their curriculum. Teachers’ previous experiences influenced their implementation of an… Continue

Added by Timothy Gangwer on May 8, 2009 at 10:16am — No Comments

More On Visual Intelligence

Visual Intelligence

Howard Gardner in Frames of Mind (1983), and Multiple Intelligences (1993), identified many kinds of intelligence including: verbal-linguistic, mathematical-logical, visual-spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist. Gardner states, “ Intelligences always work in concert, and any sophisticated adult role will involve a melding of several of them.” (Gardner & Walters, 1993, p.17)

Visual literacy refers… Continue

Added by Timothy Gangwer on May 7, 2009 at 9:59am — No Comments

Digital Visual Literacy

A modern, literate person is one who is not only able to read and write but is educated in all the basic means necessary to thrive in a digital, networked world.

An important aspect of this general literacy is a digital visual literacy, the ability to critically analyze visual materials, create effective visual communications, and make judgments and decisions using visual representations of thoughts and ideas.

Digital visual literacy is a set of skills that enable students… Continue

Added by Timothy Gangwer on May 5, 2009 at 1:19pm — 1 Comment

Proving or Improving Visual Education: Implications for Teacher Education

Knowledge, as central to sustaining society and culture, is becoming increasingly dependent on the visual. While other signs and symbol systems such as text and numbers have dominated, and other arts forms such as music and dance are able to express and reveal the pulse of human existence, it is the emergence of new visual technologies and new multimodal forms of the visual that see us expressing and communicating, as never before, in a wide variety of visual forms and materials - including… Continue

Added by Timothy Gangwer on May 4, 2009 at 1:19pm — No Comments

Visual Literacy, Journalism and the Digital Age


In the digital age visual literacy is becoming integral to journalism education. As the production and reception of the screen shifts from an analogue world to a digital constellation, the significance of visual literacy begs to be addressed. While recognizing that traditionally, areas such as television journalism have always worked in tandem with camera operators and vision editors to re-present people and circumstances; the digital age ought to be understood…

Added by Timothy Gangwer on May 3, 2009 at 12:56pm — No Comments

Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement Using Digital Cameras

Identifying Similarities and Differences

• Representing similarities and differences in graphic or symbolic form enhances students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge.

• Use images taken with your digital camera to provide explicit guidance in identifying similarities and differences.

• Use images taken with your digital camera to ask students to independently identify similarities and differences.

o Ask students to compare images

o Ask students… Continue

Added by Timothy Gangwer on April 30, 2009 at 5:08pm — No Comments

Guidelines for Teaching Visual-Spatial Learners

1. Present ideas visually on the chalkboard or on overheads. "A picture is worth a thousand words." Use rich, visual imagery in lectures.

2. Teach the student to visualize spelling words, math problems, etc. An effective method of teaching spelling is to write the word in large, colored print and present it to the student at arm's length, slightly above eye level. Have her close her eyes, visualize the word, then create a silly picture of the word in her mind. Then have her spell it… Continue

Added by Timothy Gangwer on April 28, 2009 at 10:11am — No Comments

Connecting the Digital Dots: Literacy of the 21st Century

Literacy today depends on understanding the multiple media that make up our high-tech reality and developing the skills to use them effectively

Prior to the 21st century, literate defined a person’s ability to read and write, separating the educated from the uneducated. With the advent of a new millennium and the rapidity with which technology has changed society, the concept of literacy has assumed new meanings. Experts in the field suggest that the current generation… Continue

Added by Timothy Gangwer on April 27, 2009 at 10:51am — No Comments

Optical Illusions are Everywhere

Seeing is deceiving. Thus a familiar epigram may be challenged in order to indicate the trend of this book which aims to treat certain phases of optical illusions. In general, we do not see things as they are or as they are related to each other; that is, the intellect does not correctly interpret the deliverances of the visual sense, although sometimes the optical mechanism of the eyes is directly responsible for the optical illusion. In other words, none of our conceptions and perceptions are… Continue

Added by Timothy Gangwer on April 26, 2009 at 9:46am — No Comments

Critical Perspectives on Visual Imagery in Media and Cyberculture

"Seeing comes before words. The child looks and recognizes before it can speak." - John Berger

Developing a critical approach to visual culture requires, first of all, recognizing the central importance of visual imagery in contemporary culture. As my opening epigram from John Berger suggests, visual images have long been of utmost significance for human life and our ways of seeing. Indeed, how we interact with and interpret visual images is a basic component of human… Continue

Added by Timothy Gangwer on April 23, 2009 at 9:35am — No Comments

Your Intelligence and Your Environment

Humans are survivors.

We’ve survived extreme desert heat, bitter artic cold and killer diseases. Our ability to adapt has allowed us to travel the globe and prosper all over the world – from the Sahara desert to the Artic wastelands, man has settled.

Over time our bodies have adapted to these different conditions: humans living near the equator have developed darker skin to protect them from the harsh sun; those living further away developed lighter skin so that they could… Continue

Added by Timothy Gangwer on April 21, 2009 at 11:43am — No Comments

How to Mind Map

1. Turn a large A4 (11.7" x 8.3") or preferably A3 (16.7" x 11.7"), white sheet of paper on it's side (landscape), or use a Mind Map pad. Gather a selection of coloured pens, ranging from fine nib to medium and highlighters.

2. Select the topic, problem or subject to be Mind Mapped.

3. Gather any materials or research or additional information.

4. Start in the centre with an unframed image – approximately 6cm high and wide for an A4 and 10cm for an… Continue

Added by Timothy Gangwer on April 15, 2009 at 10:59am — No Comments

Four Faces of Art Education

One of the problems with trying to gain more prominence for art education in K-12 schools is that the field has been narrowly defined to focus mainly on the aesthetics of personal exploration characterized by the fine arts. I suggest that we improve the chances that students will gain knowledge and skills in visual art by broadening the conception of the subject to include visual culture, visual design, and visual communication.

Elliot Eisner, from Stanford University, and others… Continue

Added by Timothy Gangwer on April 13, 2009 at 5:08pm — No Comments

Footnotes: Visual Thinking Techniques

Western society is dominated by words. Linear, lexical information transmission is the norm, and most of us don’t think twice about it. We train our children to think and learn in words from a very early age, marginalising alternative ways of processing information. We know that children learn through play, but we hope that they learn to read and write sooner rather than later. We assume that traditional words-based teaching and training methods are right and proper, and that people who don’t… Continue

Added by Timothy Gangwer on April 11, 2009 at 11:44am — No Comments

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